Investments in Financial Assets
The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal while maximizing the income that we receive from our investments without significantly increasing risk and loss. Our investments are exposed to market risk due to fluctuations in interest rates, which may affect our interest income and the fair market value of our investments. We manage this exposure by performing ongoing evaluations of our investments. Due to the short-term maturities of our investments to date, their carrying value has always approximated their fair value.
A financial asset is classified in this category if our management has designated it as a financial asset upon initial recognition, because it is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair-value basis in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy. Our investment policy with regard to excess cash, as adopted by our Board of Directors, is composed of the following objectives: (i) preserving investment principal; (ii) providing liquidity; and (iii) providing optimum yields pursuant to the policy guidelines and market conditions. The policy provides detailed guidelines as to the securities and other financial instruments in which we are allowed to invest. In addition, in order to maintain liquidity, investments are structured to provide flexibility to liquidate at least 50% of all investments within 15 business days. Information about these assets, including details of the portfolio and income earned, is provided internally on a quarterly basis to our key management personnel and on a semi-annual basis to the Investment Monitoring Committee of our Board of Directors. Any divergence from this investment policy requires approval from our Board of Directors.
Government Participation in Research and Development Expenses
We have received research and development funding from the State of Israel through the OCS, and we may receive such funding in the future. In accordance with the OCS programs, we are entitled to specific funding with respect to a development project only after we incur development costs related to the project. Such funding qualifies as “forgivable loans” in accordance with IAS 20, “Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance,” since it is repayable only if we generate revenues related to the underlying project.
In accordance with IAS 20, we account for each forgivable loan as a liability unless it is more likely than not that we will meet the terms of forgiveness of the loan, in which case the forgivable loan is accounted for as a government grant and carried to income as a reduction of the research and development expenses. Upon the initiation of any project for which we have received a loan, we consider it more likely than not that the project will not reach the revenue-generating stage during the entire development phase of the project when determining the accounting treatment of the related loan. Our determination is based on the high risk nature of pharmaceutical development generally and specifically on our strategy of initializing projects in early stages of development. Therefore, we record a liability in respect of forgivable loans on a project only when it becomes probable that we will repay the loan.
Liabilities to the OCS in respect of out-licensing transactions are generally discussed and negotiated with the OCS, due to the fact that such licensing transactions do not fit into the standard development funding model contemplated by the Israeli Research and Development Law.
We account for stock-based compensation arrangements in accordance with the provisions of IFRS 2. IFRS 2 requires companies to recognize stock compensation expense for awards of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of those awards (with limited exceptions). The cost is recognized as compensation expense over the life of the instruments, based upon the grant-date fair value of the equity or liability instruments issued. The fair value of our option grants is computed as of the grant date based on the Black-Scholes model, using the standard parameters established in that model including estimates relating to volatility of our stock, risk-free interest rates, estimated life of the equity instruments issued and the market price of our stock. As our ordinary shares are publicly traded on the TASE, we do not need to estimate their fair market value. Rather, we use the actual closing market price of our ordinary shares on the date of grant, as reported by the TASE.