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20-F
BIOLINERX LTD. filed this Form 20-F on 03/10/2016
Entire Document
 
49

 
 
United States
 
In the United States, drugs are subject to rigorous regulation by the FDA. The U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, storage, record-keeping, packaging, labeling, adverse event reporting, advertising, promotion, marketing, distribution and import and export of pharmaceutical products. Failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements may subject us to a variety of administrative or judicially imposed sanctions and/or prevent us from obtaining or maintaining required approvals or to market drugs. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements may subject us to stringent administrative or judicial sanctions, such as agency refusal to approve pending applications, warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions or criminal prosecution.
 
Unless a drug is exempt from the NDA process, the steps required before a drug may be marketed in the United States include:
 
 
preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation development;
 
 
submission to the FDA of a request for an investigational new drug, or IND, to conduct human clinical testing;
 
 
adequate and well controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of the drug for each indication as well as to establish the exposure levels;
 
 
submission to the FDA of an NDA;
 
 
a potential public hearing of an outside advisory committee to discuss the application;
 
 
satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the drug is manufactured; and
 
 
FDA review and approval of the NDA.
 
Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, toxicity, formulation and stability, as well as animal studies. For studies conducted in the United States, and certain studies carried out outside the United States, we submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information and analytical results, to the FDA as part of an IND, which must become effective before we may commence human clinical trials. An IND will automatically become effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions about issues such as the conduct of the trials as outlined in the IND. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding FDA concerns or questions before clinical trials can proceed. Submission of an IND does not always result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to commence and the FDA may halt a clinical trial if unexpected safety issues surface or the study is not being conducted in compliance with applicable requirements.
 
The FDA may refuse to accept an IND for review if applicable regulatory requirements are not met. Moreover, the FDA may delay or prevent the start of clinical trials if the manufacturing of the test drugs fails to meet cGMP requirements or the clinical trials are not adequately designed. Such government regulation may delay or prevent the study and marketing of potential products for a considerable time period and may impose costly procedures upon a manufacturer’s activities. In addition, the FDA may, at any time, impose a clinical hold on ongoing clinical trials. If the FDA imposes a clinical hold, clinical trials cannot continue without FDA authorization and then only under terms authorized by the FDA.
 
Success in early-stage clinical trials does not assure success in later-stage clinical trials. Results obtained from clinical activities are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations that could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. Even if a therapeutic candidate receives regulatory approval, later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product may result in restrictions on the product or even withdrawal of marketing approval for the product.